Stem cells are precursor cells that can develop into numerous types of cells. Stem cell therapy has been widely accepted as a treatment option for a variety of ailments, including skin and hair problems. Stem cells can be differentiated based on where they come from and how well they can differentiate. They are found in the skin’s inter-follicular epidermis, hair follicle, dermis, and adipose tissue, where they support normal skin homeostasis as well as wound healing and regeneration.
Two key properties of stem cells are their capacity for long-term self-renewal and their ability to give birth to specific cell lineages or cells. Somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells are the two categories into which stem cells are often divided. The categorization of somatic stem cells includes skin stem cells as well. However, many kinds of skin stem cells have been discovered throughout the years due to the skin’s cellular heterogeneity. With the use of molecular techniques, great progress has recently been achieved in identifying several skin stem cell types.
How does stem cell therapy act on the skin?
Every stage of the healing process for wounds is mediated by mesenchymal stem cells. They can coordinate the effects of inflammation during the inflammatory phase by promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing the harmful effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
It is well known that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have anti-inflammatory and abilities to strengthen the immunity. When MSC are used locally, topically, and in circulation, they have an anti-inflammatory action that speeds up healing and lessens scarring. Acne scarring can be effectively treated with platelet concentrate (PRP), a rich source of growth factors.
What types of cells are used in skin care?
Amino acids and peptides, which are beauty care superstar nutrients for skin renewal, are found in stem cells. In recent years, a range of both animal- and plant-based stem cells have been used in skincare products. These are the building blocks for cell regeneration. Stem cells feed skin cells and contain antioxidants that encourage cell turnover (shedding dead skin cells) and boost collagen production. As a consequence, there may be fewer lines and wrinkles, better skin tone and texture, and younger-looking skin.
Plant stem cells, and more precisely stem cell extracts, are an ingredient in the majority of skincare products. Although the extracts themselves can be beneficial for the skin, it is incorrect to believe that a portion of this kind of product will eventually develop into a new skin cell.
What condition does stem cell therapy help in the skin?
Here are the medical conditions in which stem cell therapy may help:
1. Burns and wound healing
Since the 1980s, sheets of new skin have been grown in the laboratory for patients with severe burns using skin stem cells. However, the new skin lacks sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands, and hair follicles, making the procedure far from ideal and calling for more study to make it better. Only a few healthcare centres now employ the method, which is primarily used to preserve the lives of patients who suffer third-degree burns across very significant regions of their bodies.
Also Read: For minor cuts and burns: First aid remedies my mom always finds in her kitchen
Acne (Acne vulgaris) is a persistent skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit that develops when dead skin cells and skin oil clog hair follicles. The fact that adolescents are the age range when the illness is most frequently seen suggests that hormones may be the cause. However, it is less frequent in adults. In their forties, 4 percent of people may still have the illness. Four abnormal processes have been described in the pathogenesis of the condition:
3. Signs of ageing
Plant Stem Cells aid in making skin seem plump. It will make the skin look healthier, keeps its tone and colour better over time, and retains moisture for a longer amount of time during the day. They also aid in making skin look tight and taut. Additionally, they help minimise the appearance of pores, dark spots, and wrinkles. Several stem cells and extracts can be used to minimise laugh lines, crow’s feet, and big pores.
Also Read: 7 skin care tips you can’t ignore to fight signs of ageing
Side effects of stem cell therapy
Every medical procedure has advantages and disadvantages. However, untested stem cell treatments can be very dangerous. For instance, participants at a public FDA session in 2016 highlighted a number of serious adverse event situations. After receiving a stem cell injection into the eye, one patient lost sight. Another patient’s injection into the spinal cord resulted in the development of a spinal tumour.
The capacity of cells to travel from insertion sites and transform into unsuitable cell types or multiply, administration site reactions, failure of cells to function normally and the development of malignancies and administration site reactions are additional possible safety issues for experimental therapies.
Even when stem cells are made from your cells, there are still threats to your safety, such as those mentioned above. Additionally, there is a chance of cell contamination if cells are handled after removal. Cosmetics made with human stem cell culture medium can restore skin health, promote skin regeneration, and slow the ageing process of skin cells. These cosmetics are made using human stem cell culture media. However, aged skin and sun-damaged skin may both experience discolouration and hyper-pigmentation.
Can stem cells help in new skin growth and regeneration?
It is possible to direct stem cells to differentiate into certain cells that can be employed in individuals to regenerate and restore tissues that have been damaged or impacted by illness. The differentiation of stem cells inside the epidermis and hair follicles, which allows for continuous skin regeneration, makes skin a good source of stem cells. This is crucial for the management of burns and persistent skin wounds. The existence of epidermal stem cells, which constantly make keratinocytes and then undergo terminal differentiation to form a keratinized layer with the qualities that give skin its barrier, is what gives the skin’s epidermis its extraordinary capacity for regeneration.